Breathing becomes challenging during episodes of bronchial spasm that are a hallmark of the respiratory disorder asthma. It frequently has a connection to an allergic reaction or any hypersensitivity, which is followed by airway inflammation and sensitivity. A subtle, intricate, and varied respiratory ailment, asthma. Although inheritance is a major risk factor for developing asthma, environmental and internal exposures as well as how they interact with genetic factors also significantly affect the pathophysiology of the disease. High throughput omics approaches for the unbiased screening of biomarkers including genes, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites have recently emerged in the field of asthma research. By combining clinical data with large-scale research that illustrate different population-based data, a better asthma risk profile has been attained. There are numerous phenotypes and endotypes of this allergic airway disease, many of which are still poorly understood. Asthma has many etiologies that reflect the diversity of phenotypes, and it is believed that a combination of genetic and environmental factors interact to increase the risk of asthma in both children and adults. It will take a lot of work to define various symptoms, locate underlying mechanisms, and identify related biomarkers in order to accomplish this goal. It is obvious that an individualised approach is necessary for the analysis, monitoring, and therapy of asthma. The degree of genetic link between a person and an affected relative determines their likelihood of having a complex illness. Furthermore, the risk is often higher if the relative suffers from a serious illness or was afflicted as a small child. In contrast to diseases caused by a single gene, the asthma phenotype is extremely diverse and expressed non-linearly. Because of this, it is difficult to determine whether a person with a certain gene or genotype would develop asthma.
Overview & Background
Asthma is a complex, heterogeneous disease that affects both children and adults worldwide. It has a wide variety of symptoms and imperfectly understood underlying pathogenetic pathways. Over the past ten years, a large number of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified several genetic variants related to the risk of developing asthma. These mainly non-coding polymorphisms regulate asthma hereditary traits and gene expression. However, these results only partially substantiate the role of genetics in the emergence of asthma. The subtyping of asthma has required a lot of work . Phenotypes, which are classifications of observable qualities, are frequently the result of genetics and environment. Asthma phenotypes have long been classified according on the severity of the ailment, how it responds to treatment, and exacerbating factors. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying disease may not always be represented by the same phenotypes . Endotypes, on the other hand, are subgroups of diseases based on distinctive pathophysiological mechanisms. Endotypes may be useful in the therapeutic situation because they organise the mechanistic understanding of many diseases, such as asthma, and direct therapy toward modalities that target specific pathways that may be disrupted within a certain endotype . For those who have asthma, this is essential because different medications affect them differently. Given the increasing availability of biologics that target particular pathways, it is becoming more and more important to clearly categorise asthma endotypes in order to effectively administer medications and improve asthma management. Epigenetic approaches including DNA methylation, microRNA expression, and histone modifications may help us understand the disease’s aetiology, according to current research in the cutting-edge science of epigenetics . Numerous cascades of events, such as omics of dangerous variations, which may directly alter disease aetiology, occur at several levels of genomics and are associated with complex disorders like asthma. Numerous GWASs in the field of asthma have been undertaken over the past 20 years, and as a result, multiple candidate genes for asthma hazard have been identified . The “17Q12-21” region, which has been simulated in many GWASs and contains a number of likely biologic candidate genes, including ORMDL3 and GSDMB, has been particularly implicated in the emergence of asthma. However, genetic risk for asthma is often underrepresented by genetic loci, and genomics alone does not provide a significant amount of information on the broader biological context in which the identified changes and associated genes function . Other omics-based approaches have been successful in characterising the many mechanisms involved in the development and progression of asthma disease. Transcript-omics, the systematic, unbiased evaluation of RNA expression across the genome, has been used to highlight different asthma endotypes, such as T2 high vs. T2 low endotypes.